Dewey Decimal Classification-20
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Born : Melville Louis Kossuth Dewey-December 10, 1851 -Adams Center, New York
Died December 26, 1931 (aged 80) Lake Placid, Florida
Other names Melvil Dewey (Melvil Dui)
Alma mater Amherst College
Occupation librarian, resort developer, reformer
Known for Dewey Decimal Classification
Spouse(s) Annie R. Godfrey (1878),Emily McKay Beal (1924)
Relatives Godfrey Dewey (son)
Dewey was born in Adams Center, New York, the fifth and last child of Joel and Eliza Greene Dewey. He attended rural schools and determined early that his destiny was to reform education of the masses. He briefly attended Alfred University (1870), then Amherst College, where he belonged to Delta Kappa Epsilon, and from which he earned a bachelor's degree in 1874 and a master's in 1877.
While still a student, he founded the Library Bureau, which sold high-quality index-cards and filing-cabinets, and established the standard dimensions for catalog cards.
As a young adult he advocated spelling reform; he changed his name from the usual "Melville" to "Melvil", without redundant letters, and for a time changed his surname to "Dui".
From 1883 to 1888 he was chief librarian at Columbia University. During his time as director of the New York State Library (1888–1906) Dewey established a program of traveling libraries. From 1888 to 1900 Dewey served as secretary and executive officer of the University of the State of New York.
In 1895 Dewey founded the Lake Placid Club with his wife Annie. He and his son Godfrey had been active in arranging the Winter Olympics which took place at Lake Placid—he chaired the New York State Winter Olympics Committee. In 1926 he went to Florida to establish a new branch of the Lake Placid Club.
Dewey established a pattern of making powerful enemies early in life, and many of his friends found him difficult as well. As one biographer put it, "Although he did not lack friends, they were weary of coming to his defense, so endless a process it had become." Another biography refers to Dewey's "old nemesis—a persistent inability to control himself around women" as a chronic cause of trouble on the job. Indeed, when Dewey opened his School of Library Economy at Columbia College to women it was rumored that he asked for their bust sizes with their applications. Though the rumor turned out to be false he did require a photograph from each female applicant since "you cannot polish a pumpkin." In 1905 during a 10-day trip to Alaska sponsored by the American Library Association (ALA), a group he co-founded, he made unwelcome advances on four prominent librarians who informed Association officials. As a result, Dewey stepped down from the ALA. Reports, allegations, and an investigation of Dewey's inappropriate and offensive behavior directed at women continued for decades after his departure from ALA.
In 1904 the New York State Board of Regents received a petition demanding Dewey's removal as State Librarian because of his personal involvement in the Lake Placid Club's policy of excluding Jews and other religious and ethnic groups. While the Regents declined to remove Dewey, they did issue a public rebuke, and in the summer of 1905 he resigned as a result.
Dewey married twice, first to Annie R. Godfrey, and then to Emily McKay Beal. He and his first wife had one child, Godfrey. Dewey became a member of the American Library Association's Hall of Fame in 1951.
He died of a stroke in Lake Placid, Florida.
History and Current Use
The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system is a general knowledge organization tool that is continuously revised to keep pace with knowledge. The system was conceived by Melvil Dewey in 1873 and was first published in 1876. The DDC is published by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. OCLC owns all copyright rights in the Dewey Decimal Classification, and licenses the system for a variety of uses.
The DDC is the most widely used classification system in the world. Libraries in more than 135 countries use the DDC to organize and provide access to their collections, and DDC numbers are featured in the national bibliographies of more than 60 countries. Libraries of every type apply Dewey numbers on a daily basis and share these numbers through a variety of means (including WorldCat®, the OCLC Online Union Catalog). Dewey is also used for other purposes, e.g., as a browsing mechanism for resources on the Web.
The DDC has been translated into more than 30 languages. Translations of the latest full and abridged editions of the DDC are completed, planned or underway in Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Icelandic, Italian, Korean, Norwegian, Russian, Spanish and Vietnamese.
One of Dewey's great strengths is that the system is developed and maintained in a national bibliographic agency, the Library of Congress. The Dewey editorial office is located in the Decimal Classification Division of the Library of Congress, where classification specialists annually assign over 110,000 DDC numbers to records for works cataloged by the Library. Having the editorial office within the Decimal Classification Division enables the editors to detect trends in the literature that must be incorporated into the Classification. The editors prepare proposed schedule revisions and expansions and forward the proposals to the Dewey Decimal Classification Editorial Policy Committee (EPC) for review and recommended action.
The EPC is a ten-member international board whose main function is to advise the editors and OCLC on matters relating to changes, innovations and the general development of the Classification. EPC represents the interests of DDC users; its members come from national, public, special and academic libraries and from library schools.
E-Books of DDC Vol-20
Dewey Decimal Classification Vol.No 20, Part-1
Dewey Decimal Classification Vol.No 20, Part-2
Dewey Decimal Classification Vol.No 20, Part-3
Dewey Decimal Classification Vol.No 20, Part-4